Cat hernias typically aren't cause for panic and can be repaired with surgery. Today, our Santa Cruz County vets describe different types of hernias in cats and what you can expect if your cat has hernia surgery.
What are hernias?
A cat developing a hernia is pretty uncommon and when they do occur it's typically something your cat has been born with. That being said, trauma, injury, internal damage, flawed muscles or weak muscle walls that allow organs and tissue to pass through can cause hernias.
Essentially, a hernia is a collection of intestine, fat and sometimes other internal organs that escape the abdominal cavity. Excessive bloating, pregnancy, or constipation are other potential causes of hernias in cats. In addition, a hernia may occur if the wrong type of suture material is used or suture lines are improperly closed after a spay operation.
Cat hernias may also occur if your feline friend is not kept calm and inactive enough while healing after being spayed.
What are the different types of hernias in cats?
The three types of hernias in cats are categorized based on their location in the cat’s body. They include:
One of the rarest types of hernias, a hiatal hernia is a type of diaphragmatic hernia, which can occur when the abdominal viscera pushes through the diaphragm. When caused by a birth defect, this “sliding hernia” can come and go.
Inguinal hernias are one of the more uncommon types of hernias in cats and are typically an issue in pregnant females. If the intestines protrude through the inguinal canal, an inguinal hernia can affect your cat’s groin area.
Though this type of hernia in cats can usually be pushed back in, it may develop into a serious condition if the intestines become trapped in the muscle wall. In this case, an inguinal hernia can be life-threatening for your cat if blood flow to the tissue is severed.
If your cat has an umbilical hernia, this may feel like a soft swelling, bulge or squishy protrusion below the skin. It is located just under the ribcage on a cat’s underside, near the belly button, and may often appear when your cat is meowing, crying, straining or standing.
Caused by an opening in the muscle wall, this type of hernia can occur if the umbilical ring does not close properly following birth. The organs can push through the area surrounding the umbilicus.
Usually only seen in kittens, an umbilical hernia poses no health risks and is typically painless. It will likely close without treatment by the time your kitten is 3 to 4 months old.
Cat Hernia Surgery & Treatment
Occasionally, your vet may be able to push internal organs back through the muscle wall. In some cases, the opening may then heal once the organs are back in the abdominal cavity where they belong.
However, the risk that the hernia will recur is high, so your vet may recommend fixing the muscle wall as even small openings can potentially lead to complications such as strangulation.
If organs cannot easily be pushed back through the abdominal cavity, if the tear in the muscle wall does not close by itself or if complications such as blockage, infection or strangulation occur, your cat will require surgery to repair the hernia.
First, your vet will perform diagnostic tests such as complete a blood chemistry test, complete blood count and urinalysis to determine your pet’s overall physical health.
Provided the hernia repair is not urgent, any diagnosed conditions can be addressed before surgery. Non-urgent hernias can typically be repaired when your cat is neutered or spayed to minimize the need for anesthesia.
The night before your cat's hernia surgery, fasting will be necessary and fluids should be restricted. Your vet will use intravenous anesthesia to put your cat into a deep sleep, then insert a tracheal tube to maintain the anesthesia with gas.
Before the surgery, your vet will shave and clean the area to be operated on, then use surgical drapes to help ensure the area remains sterile.
During the operation, the vet will push the abdominal organs back into the abdominal cavity. Any damaged organs and tissue will be surgically repaired before the gap in the muscle wall is closed.
The veterinarian may use either synthetic surgical mesh (if the opening is too large or if the tissue needs to be eliminated because it has died) or existing muscle tissue to shut the gap in the muscle wall. To close the incision, sutures will be used.
What will my cat's hernia surgery recovery be like?
Antibiotics may be provided prior to and following your cat’s hernia surgery to treat or prevent infection. Your cat will also need to wear a collar during the recovery period to prevent him or her from licking or biting incision areas or sutures. Cage rest and pain medicines will be prescribed as required.
Cats who need hernia surgery typically will not need to be hospitalized long-term after surgery, as the procedure is usually straightforward. In addition, surgical complications are rare and the hernia may be permanently resolved.
Risk of suture rupturing, infections or hemorrhaging can be minimized with careful monitoring by a veterinarian.
When detected and treated early, hernias in cats do not tend to cause many complications and are unlikely to recur. Early and effective treatment is necessary to ensure your cat stays healthy.
How much does cat hernia surgery cost?
There are a number of factors that will influence the cost of your cat's hernia surgery ranging from where you live, the fees charged by your specific vet, and the complexity of your cat's condition. Your vet will be able to provide you with a written estimate for how much your cat's hernia surgery will cost.
What should I do if I think my cat may have a hernia?
If you suspect your cat may have a hernia, contact your vet right away to book an appointment so the condition can be officially diagnosed and treated.
Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.